Monday, August 31, 2015

Songwriting From The Ground Up

Your experience with songs may be that you have heard songs on radio, YouTube, iTunes, or other media. You have developed preferences in what you like. You may like one style more than others. You may like only one style. You may like all or most styles of music. Now, you want to write a song or songs and maybe you have already given it a try. Maybe your song didn't turn out like how you wanted it to. Maybe it did, but you're not sure where to go from here.

Without hearing your song or your song idea, there is no way to evaluate it, so let's explore songwriting from the ground up. Somewhere in the process, we will hit your level and move up from there. Perhaps there are also some blanks to fill in along the way. If you knew everything there is to know about cars and driving, except for where the brake is and what the brake does, you will run into a “problem” eventually. So it is important to find out what you know and what you don't know and fill in the blanks of your knowledge.

To listen to a song in its entirety can be overwhelming when you start to analyze it, if you haven't done that before. There is a lot going on at once and throughout the song. There can be singing of lyrics and the accompaniment. The words and the music are two components, but those have many sub-parts, so to speak. If we back up from what we hear and get a broader view of the song, we'll see some things we might not have noticed.

STRUCTURE AND FORM of songs is what makes the analysis a little easier. Song structure is very much like structure in poetry but not necessarily the same. The structure of a song is also called the form. In a song you usually have either a verse or a chorus to start the song. Most songs start with a verse but the song “Killing Me Softly” starts with a chorus. Within the chorus is also the title of that song. The title is repeated within the chorus, too. You might listen to the song and count how many times “killing me softly” is repeated. That part, the title and the line of that song is often referred to as the “hook”. It has the hypnotic effect of repetition to anchor itself in your mind after you have heard it a few times. It is common in popular, country, and jazz songs that there will be a hook. We're not looking for a formula at this point in time.

THE SONG FORM is the way it is put together in verses, choruses, bridges, and other interludes. There might be an instrumental solo or a rap section or a spoken section, but it may have none of those. That brings us to an aspect of music which may be one of the best features of music as an art. That aspect is freedom. How free we get with music can also determine our audience. Who will like the music? We don't want to necessarily write for one group or one style, or do we? There are no rules in music but there are tendencies and norms. There are styles. In Baroque style writing there are “rules” but they are part of what makes Baroque what it is. To go outside the rules would result in altering the style of Baroque music. It is not a bad thing to know or to learn just as ballet is not a bad thing for a hiphop or jazz dancer to know, however, one may not be essential as a prerequisite to the other. There are commonalities between ballet and other dance. There are also commonalities between Baroque music and modern music. We will investigate these soon.

A song made up of music and lyrics could be viewed as a composite entity, or a composition. Again, when we look at doing the whole thing, it can feel daunting. It doesn't have to be. If we look at the lyrics, we will see there is a message in them. The message is more often than not having to do with love between two people. Sometimes it is a subject other than love. Sometimes it is about a person, place, or thing, such as a condition, an animal, a situation or about religion. A song is almost always a message of some kind. The message is supposed to be heard by someone. Behind the message there is an intention for the listener to react or respond or feel a certain way, or in several ways. Sometimes the message is intended to make something known or change a person's mind. Sometimes it is to make someone feel something or to make the listener know how the songwriter feels. Sometimes it is simply to entertain or to be funny. There is always an intention behind the lyrics. What does the lyricist think or feel? It may be in the lyrics or may be implied or inferred.

Lyrics connect to a melody, usually. Otherwise, it is a poem or prose. The melody is where we connect words with music. Within the melody is rhythm, varying tones at differing pitches, and varying duration of sustained tones. The melody can rhythmically resemble the spoken word, or not, depending on the lyricist's or songwriter's artist prerogative. There aren't rules for melodic writing but there are tendencies. Some lines follow scale or modal patterns and may also have larger intervals or skips. Theses may be characteristic of a given style but again, there are no rules, as such. Additionally, there is nothing to stop a writer from experimenting or innovating something new to a style.

If you listen to a modern pop style song, you also here instruments in addition to the voice. The instruments used and the things they play fill out the song and may make it more interesting than if it is done a capella, which is with only the voice. A capella literally means “like a chapel” or as it would be done in a chapel having no musical instruments. Usually there will be a bass, keyboard(s), guitar(s), drums, and other instruments such as wind instruments or strings. This is the accompaniment. It is what is going along with, or accompanying, the voice singing the song.

A song starts with an idea or a concept. Some writers start with a melody and add words to it. Some start with words and “make up a melody” to the words. Some start with a feel or rhythm or a beat using drums or drums and bass. Some songwriters start with chords and then improvise a melody to the chords, not unlike jazz musicians. There is not a right way or a wrong way to write a song from the ground up. It may dependent upon your skill level with lyric writing or with music. You can collaborate with someone if you are a strong lyricist but a weak musician. You also can learn more about music and then go it alone, without needing a partner in your songwriting.

It's a good idea to look at some song lyrics to see the form and the structure. A verse can be four lines, for example. They usually rhyme at the ends of the lines and in specific patterns. Sometimes they have near-rhymes or no rhymes. No rules. Just write.

You start with where you are and what you know and go from there. You have to be willing and able to learn what you don't know or work with another person who already knows songwriting. At some point you may want to learn music theory or harmonic technique. There have been hit songs with only one chord. There also have been hit songs with two chords. That isn't what made them hit songs, but it didn't stop them from being hit songs. People loved them. Some songs have complex chord progressions with numerous chords and that approach worked for those songs. If you start from where you are, you can build on your knowledge and on your skill level. You might not want to start with trying to write a hit song. Or you may. There should be the objective of having something to say and getting the message across and received with the least resistance. The beauty of a song is what makes it irresistible. Some songs are not so pretty, but therefor can convey other emotions such as anger, fear, doubt, worry, etc.

As long as you are willing to learn as you go, the more you write, the more you will improve. If it's something you think you can love, start. You don't have to wait for inspiration, but inspiration helps. Get yourself inspired and go write a song.

Thursday, August 13, 2015

Chest Voice, Middle Voice, Head Voice, what are they?

I was not born with a perfectly functioning singing voice. I had no problems in chest voice or in the lower part middle voice, just above chest voice. I had a very distinct and annoying crack, which kept me from singing opera, popular, Broadway and R&B songs until I was trained. I have helped singers to no longer crack and also to help prevent vocal nodules (callouses of the vocal folds). Most people need training to gain control over the voice. A very few are born with it, perhaps 1%. I am not ashamed to have studied, because the results opened up a whole new world to me, which includes having sung professionally in Las Vegas.

Let's clarify some terms to start on the road to understanding more about the singing voice.

Chest voice, middle voice, and head voice are vocal registers, or ranges. Many people think that chest voice is a type of sound and that head voice is a type of sound. Many people don't fully understand middle voice at all. It is a never-neverland or fantasy world. Middle voice is thought to be a place that is hard or impossible to get to. It is also called: mix or bridge or passaggio. Passaggio is an Italian word, meaning passage way.

What is chest voice? Chest voice is the range in which you can feel vibration in your chest when you sing in that range. The reason is that the sound waves are larger in chest voice and they resonate in your chest, the size of which approximates the sound waves, pitch-wise. Have you ever been in a hallway or room and found a tone which loudly resonates with your voice? There will be one specific tone which will do this. Your chest will vibrate when you are in chest voice and that is how it got its name. Unless you are singing with a breathy tone, chest voice will be a full sound, which can be produced loudly when needed. This is called full voice.

Full voice is often confused with chest voice. They are not the same thing. Full voice is achieved when the vibrating vocal folds are in close proximity, to the extent that the tone is full, rather than weak or breathy. When the vocal folds are not vibrating in close proximity, excess air escapes and can be heard mixed in with the tone. It is not necessarily wrong to sing with a breathy tone, for effect when stylistically or emotionally appropriate. The breathy tone production does have the potential of causing dryness to the vocal folds (vocal cords, as they used to be called). The “lubrication” of the vocal folds is done by mucous secreting glands. It can become irritating to the delicate tissue, if it dries out.

Head voice is called head voice because your head vibrates when you are in the higher notes of head voice. In a properly trained and developed voice, the tone can be full and powerful, just as in chest voice. It can be called full voice in head or full head voice. It is not a breathy sound. When working properly, a singer can sustain a high note and crescendo from very soft to very loud, without a change in the sound of the tone. If there is a sudden change in the sound of the tone, that is what singers call a break or a crack. Things do not actually crack or break in the sense of the vocal apparatus but instead, the singer and listener hear an abrupt distinct change in the tone quality.

The hardest thing for many singers, including some professional singers, is to smoothly execute the tones throughout the entire vocal range. Most untrained singers have difficulty singing passages which extend from chest voice to head voice. Singers whose voices crack or break when transitioning from chest voice to head voice (or vice-versa) are actually experiencing a brief and sudden loss of adduction of the vocal folds. They “pop” open and then close again. Some singers will yell or scream out high notes but over time that can and has caused injury. There must be a coordination of adduction in such a way as to not hyper-adduct the vocal folds. It is a balancing act. It is the correct amount of pressure sufficient to achieve the desired tone quality. Most people need training to gain control over the voice. A very few are born with it, perhaps 1%.